Legal frameworks for addressing marine pollution and protecting marine ecosystems

Main Article Content

Syed Hammad Khan
Muhammad Hamza Zakir
Saliha Khalid Sair
Arsalan Tayyab


Alliteratively, marine pollution can harm the world's oceans by making them less diverse and less able to sustain life. This issue is pressing, and measures have been developed at both national and international levels to deal with it. We will look at the effectiveness of these legal instruments, and some of the challenges in their implementation. Starting with the historical development of marine pollution laws, we show how they evolved from national laws with territorial jurisdiction only to worldwide conventions such as The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) or The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). Then we turn to local and domestic legislation, demonstrating the wide variety of legal responses in different countries around the world. A thorough review of enforcement mechanisms identifies disturbing gaps; with serious weaknesses in surveillance, adherence to regulations and the handling of international pollution incidents. The paper also explores the role played by NGOs and civil society groups in shaping policies, prompting public attention, and pushing for stricter legal measures. Using case studies as a principal research method, the success of certain strategies and the failure of others in marine pollution control are recounted with practical examples. The paper concludes by looking into the future trends on horizon. Future challenges for marine protection include how to draw more on technology and science of regulation, and how tomorrow 's regulations must be tailored to meet the coming problems. Our research findings confirm that we need a more comprehensive and collaborative approach to protecting marine ecosystems. We must actively engage multiple sectors of society at various levels to safeguard the future of our oceans, or they will be dead before long. This study seeks to contribute to the present debate on updating legal frameworks so as to protect marine environments from ever-increasing human pressures.

Article Details

How to Cite
Syed Hammad Khan, Muhammad Hamza Zakir, Saliha Khalid Sair, & Arsalan Tayyab. (2024). Legal frameworks for addressing marine pollution and protecting marine ecosystems. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN AND SOCIETY, 4(1), 1004-1016. Retrieved from