An Iconographic Study of Women's Representation in Gandhara Civilization Art along with the Silk Road.

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Nawal Fatima
Jawaria Afzaal
Miss Xiang Yang
Muaaz Sayed


This research employs an iconographic method to examine how women are depicted in the art of the Gandhara Civilization. The primary objectives of this study are to identify the symbols and motifs used to represent women in Gandharan art and to comprehend the cultural and societal values that are reflected in the artwork. The data for this qualitative research include images of Gandharan art in the form of sculptures and carvings on stones. These images were obtained from online resources, such as books and articles published between 2005 and the present. Although the research material on Gandhara is limited, the study helps to shed light on the status of women in Gandhara culture. The analysis of the data focuses on recognizing and interpreting the symbols and motifs in the artwork, taking into account their historical and cultural context, and understanding the broader cultural and societal values that are conveyed through the portrayal of women. For obtaining the secondary data, open-ended interviews of those people were conducted, who directly or indirectly linked with Gandhara research. The research concludes with a summary of the findings supported by the evidence gathered during the analysis. This study enhances the field of art history and provides a more comprehensive comprehension of how women are represented in Gandharan art.

Key words: Gandhara, women, iconography, iconographic analysis, civilization

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How to Cite
Fatima , N., Afzal , J., Yang, M. X., & Sayed, M. (2024). An Iconographic Study of Women’s Representation in Gandhara Civilization Art along with the Silk Road. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN AND SOCIETY, 4(1), 254-268. Retrieved from